Peer-reviewed articles

Articles not peer-reviewed

Commissioned reports

Working papers

Book project: Proportional Voting Without Third Parties

Proportional representation (PR) is the idea that every vote should have equal weight, regardless of the party one chooses or whether they live in a competitive district. In the first half of the 20th century, a transnational movement brought PR to most established democracies — including 24 cities in the United States. But America's lack of third-party politics made this reform work differently. PR elections were candidate-based, not about choice among parties. Adoptions were bipartisan and by referendum, not the decisions of incumbent governments. Rather than make deals with other parties, slating groups sought to co-opt independents. And when powerful groups tried to repeal PR, third-party weakness made that easy to do. The lesson for today's reformers is clear: if you want PR for the long term, you need multiple parties.

Contact me directly for sample chapters.